Freedom of conscience is laid down by the Qur'an itself:
"There is no compulsion in religion" (2:256)
The life and property of all citizens in an Islamic state are considered sacred whether a person is Muslim or not. Racism is incomprehensible to Muslims, for the Qur'an speaks of human equality in the following terms:
"O mankind! We created you from a single soul, male and female, and made you into nations and tribes, so that you may come to know one Another. Truly, the most honoured of you In God's sight Is the greatest of you in piety. God is All-Knowing, All-Aware." (49:13)
Islam has been from its inception very concerned with issues of human rights, privacy, freedom, dignity and equality are guaranteed in Islam. The holy Qur'an states clearly:
"Let them be not compulsion in religion; Truth stands
out clear from Error... " (2:256)
And there are no reliable reports to confirm the old accusations that when the Muslim armies were expanding into Asia, Africa and Europe the people were put to the sword if they failed to convert to Islam. The best proof is that not only did the Christians, Jews, Zoroastrians and Hindus in those areas not perish or otherwise disappear, they actually flourished as protected minority communities and many individuals rose to prominent positions in the arts, sciences, even in government.
De Lacy O' Leary commented:
"History makes it clear, however, that the legend of fanatical Muslims, sweeping through the world and forcing Islam at the point of a sword upon conquered races is one of the most fantastically absurd myths that historians have ever repeated." (Islam at Crossroads. London (1923) page 8)
The lives, property and privacy of all citizens in an Islamic state are considered sacred, whether or not the person is Muslim. Non-Muslims have freedom of worship and the practice of their religions, including their own family law and religious courts. They are obliged to pay a different tax (Jizyah) instead of the Zakah, and the state is obligated to provide both protection and government services. Before the modern era it was extremely rare to find a state or government anywhere in the world that was as solicitous of its minorities and their civil rights as the Islamic states.
In no other religion did women receive such a degree of legal and moral equality and personal respect. Moreover, racism and tribalism are incompatible with Islam, for the Qur'an speaks of human equality in the following terms:
"O mankind! We created you from a single soul, male and female, and made you into nations and tribes, that you may come to know one Another.
Truly, the most honoured of you in God's sight is the greatest of you in piety." (49:13)
Justice is a fundamental tenet of Islam as the Qur'an states:
"O you who believe! Stand out firmly for Allah and be just
witnesses and let not the enmity and hatred of others make
you avoid justice. Be just: that is nearer to piety, and fear
Allah. Verily, Allah is Well Acquainted with what you do." (5:8)
It is not permissible to oppress women's honour, and chastity are to be respected under all circumstances, the hungry must be fed, the naked clothed, and the wounded or diseased given medical treatment regardless of their pro- or anti-Muslim sentiments and activities.