Ashura

Ashura (عاشوراء)

The tenth day of the Islamic month of Muharram. On this day the memorial of Moses’ (AS) salvation from the hands of Pharaoh, and the slaying of the Grandson of the Prophet Muhammed (SAW), Hussain (AS) and his companions, and his children are remembered.

Muharram

Muharram (محرم)

(1) Muharram is the first month of the Islamic Calendar. This month is considered a month of mourning by the Shia (and many Sunni) Muslims due to the murder of the Grandson of Prophet Muhammed (SAW), Imam Hussain (AS).
(2) Muharram can mean ‘made forbidden’.

Muharram is so-called because it was the main month designated by the pre-Islam Arabs as a month where war was forbidden. They didn’t usually follow their own rules and they even made an agreement where they would observe the law on year and the next year they could fight. They also broke this agreement too.

(RA)

(ra) (رضي الله عنهم)

This acronym stands for Rathiallah Anh (singular) or Rathiallah Anhum (plural) – May Allah be pleased with him or them.

The Arabic true form is shown in plural

Eid Al Fitr

Eid Al Fitr (عيد الفطر)

Eid al-Fitr roughly translates to ‘the celebration of the end of fasting’. Muslims fast during the Islamic month of Ramadhan and they conclude this month with a three day celebratory holiday, an Eid, known as Eid al-Fitr.

Eid Al Adhha

Eid Al Adhha (عيد الاضحى)

Eid Al-Adhha translates to ‘The Celebration of the Sacrifice’. The word Eid means celebration or festival. The word Adhha comes from the word dhahiyyah (noun) which means slaughter or sacrifice (or victim). 
Eid Al-Adhha is one of the two Eids (days of celebration in the Islamic calendar). The other Eid is Eid al-Fitr and happens at the end of the holy month of fasting, Ramadhan. Eid al-Adhha occurs on the tenth day of the last month of the Islamic calendar (Dhul-Hijjah).

Eid al-Adhha is celebrated to mark a significant historical event relating to Prophet Abraham (PBUH) when he was tested by his Lord who commanded him to slaughter his only son Ismaeel (Ishmael) (PBUH) and when he was just about to make the cut, God sent down a ram for him to slaughter instead. Abraham’s faith had been tested and he had passed the test. This Eid is celebrated remembering this event and as part of the rites of pilgrimage (the Hajj), the people who do the pilgrimage must slaughter/pay-to-slaughter an animal likewise and distribute the meat amongst their family, other pilgrims, relatives, friends and the poor.

Makkah

Makkah (مكه)

The holy city of Makkah is situated in Saudi Arabia and is the birth place of Prophet Muhammed (SAW). Prophet Ibraheem (PBUH) built the Kaaba there and Muslims go to do Hajj (pilgramage) there.

Islam

Islam (إسلام)

(1) A monotheistic religion with the second largest following in the World.
(2) Submission (to the will of God)

The Arabic word ‘Islam’ simply means ‘submission’, and derives from a word meaning ‘peace’. In a religious context it means complete submission to the will of God. ‘Allah’ is the Arabic name for God, which is used by Arab Muslims and Christians alike.

Iddah

Iddah (عده)

A woman’s prescribed waiting period after divorce or death of husband. It is 4 months and 10 days.
If there was no period of iddah and the woman married another man and discovered she was pregnant then she would be unable to tell who the father of the child was. Iddah solves this potential problem. Iddah also applies in the situation where a woman converts while she is married to a none-Muslim husband, she has 4 months and 10 days for him to accept Islam or else the marriage dissolves.

Ibn

Ibn (ابن)

Ibn, or bin, means ‘son of’. Eg: Ali `ibn` Abi Talib (AS) means Ali `son of` Abi Talib.