Kafir

kafir (كافر)

Generally the word kafir means ‘unbeliever’ and it is not meant as a derogatory label (unless it is used against Muslims by another Muslim). Of course, there are different levels of Kufur (disbelief) so although a person may be correctly identified as a kafir, that person is not kafir in the strongest sense of the word. Absolute kufur is the denial of God. Here are some examples of kufur:

(1) A person is known as a Kafir if they are disbelievers in Allah, in His Oneness, and in His final Messenger, Muhammad (SAW). (E.g. An apostate from Islam)
(2) A ‘Muslim’ who disbelieves in a necessary tenant of Islam like the 5 pillars or some other things is known as a disbeliever.
(3) An originally non-Muslim person who denies the religion of Islam while knowing in his heart that it is true.
(4) A disbeliever in Islam only because they originally follow another (monotheistic) faith.
(5) A person who follows another (monotheistic) faith and knows nothing about Islam.
(6) A person who believes in many gods (polytheist).
(7) An agnostic who is a monotheist is a lesser kafir than a polytheist.
(8) An Atheist – ultimate kufur.

Generally a Christian or Jew is not identified as a kafir but they are known respectfully as Ahlul kitab – People of the Book(s), and Islam considers their religions valid but once they find Islam they are expected to follow the updated covenant sent by God.

وَإِذْ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلاَئِكَةِ اسْجُدُواْ لآدَمَ فَسَجَدُواْ إِلاَّ إِبْلِيسَ أَبَى وَاسْتَكْبَرَ وَكَانَ مِنَ الْكَافِرِينَ

And behold, We said to the angels: “Bow down to Adam” and they bowed down. Not so Iblis: he refused and was haughty: He was of those who reject Faith. [Quran 2.34]

Notice the use of the word ‘kafireen’ in the Arabic. This is one of the reasons why one must learn Arabic to understand the full meaning of the Quran, the words of Allah. Kafir is derived from the word meaning ‘to cover’ and Kafir also means ‘disbeliever in God’. But in this case, Iblees (Satan) is fully aware of Gods’ existence and power yet he is still described as a kafir! This goes to show that a person can be a kafir even if he believes in a God. In other words, just because someone believes there is a God, that someone can still be a kafir and be (technically) condemned to hell. Therefore, a kafir can be more correctly defined as someone who ‘rejects submission to God’ even though he is fully aware of His existence, as well as meaning a person who is a true Atheist – one who ‘rejects the existence of God’.

Inshallah

inshallah (إن شاء الله)

Insha’llah could mean any one of the following variations: If Allah (God) wills; When Allah (God) wills; If Allah (God) wishes.

People often mispronounce this word by joining up the three words that make it up – In, sha’ and Allah – and pronouncing it as one word.

Sheikh

Sheikh (شيخ)

(1) A Man over 40 years old generally, or
(2) A Muslim who is a student of knowledge. Even a new Muslim can be called a Sheikh if he is diligent in seeking the knowledge of Islam based upon Quran and authentic Sunnah. He is a Sheikh to those he can teach. 
(3) Usually a person is known as a Sheikh when they have completed their undergraduate university studies in Islamic studies and are trained in giving lectures.

The word Sheikh is not to be confused with an Alim (person of knowledge).

Mashallah

mashallah  (ماشاءالله)

Literally means ‘Whatever Allah (God) wills’. It is often used in occasions where there is surprise in someones’ good deeds or achievements. For example people say Mashallah when someone does very well in their exams.

Bismillah

bismillah  (بسم الله)

“In the name of Allah (God)”. It is a shortened version of ‘Bismillah ar-Rahman ar-Raheem’ (In the name of Allah, most gracious, most merciful) and it precedes all surahs (chapters) of the Quran except one. Bismillah is said as a blessing before eating food and other actions that are worthy of giving thanks to Allah or asking of His support.

Taqwa

taqwa  (تقوى)

Taqwa is a concept in Islam that is interpreted by some Islamic Scholars as God consciousness. It has many further understandings and interpretations. Taqwa may mean piousness, fear of Allah, love for Allah, and self restraint.

Having Taqwa allows a person to be constantly aware of both God’s presence and attributes and a reminder of their relationship and responsibility to God as His creation and servant. The scholars explain that the way to taqwa is through obedience of God, avoiding disobedience, and striving to stay away from doubtful matters.

Sahih

sahih  (صحيح)

Sound/correct/authentic. Used mainly to refer to hadiths and/or the books they were written in.

The most famous sahih books are Sahih by Bukhari, and Sahih by Muslim. There are 6 recognised sahih books collectivly known as the sihah sitah (six sahihs). These books contain narrations of what Prophet Muhammed (SAW) did or said as well as other details.